Credit for the following petition and the following research information goes to Jonathan Wilson …Here is Jonathan’s fb petition post on his personal fb page
(disclosure:- Jonathan Wilson has permitted me to share the following information including his fb page posts and archived library of information he has gathered over the yrs) Thank you Jonathan..
Jonathan started a petition in December 2017 as follows:-
This petition regarding geoengineering and weather modification in Australia is live until 3rd February 2018.
The Air Force Center for Strategy and Technology (CSAT), United States Air Force, in 1996 published “Weather as a Force Multiplier: Owning the Weather in 2025”. The article compiles patents and developments with plans to modify/weaponise weather. Climate Viewer News reports over 250 “weather modification” patents. Implemented, they induce mild to catastrophic results appearing as “climate change”. In 2011, journalist and author Donna Laframboise reported that one third of IPCC report authors committed fraud and that spurious data is being used as evidence of “climate change”. Proponents of these facts such as David Keith identify their activity as geoengineering specifically “albedo modification” with stratospheric aerosol injection consisting of sulphuric acid and aluminium et al. Weather modification techniques breach the Nuremberg Code and Declaration of Helsinki through the use of toxic aerosols and electromagnetic radiation as disbursement.
We request that all geoengineering and weather modification cease and desist throughout Australia and maritime waters. We request that all intent, activities and interests be comprehensively gazetted coherently without redactions. We request that all parties and people involved be charged with the full force of the law in accordance with the Commonwealth of Australia Constitution Act 1901.
The Australian Government would never knowingly breach the Declaration of Helsinki or the Nuremberg Code… wait, what was that, Josh Frydenberg wrote: http://parlinfo.aph.gov.au/…/display.w3p;query=Id%3A…
And here’s Josh Frydenberg’s response which responds to unconstitutional influence of the United Nations through their fraudulent IPCC:
* Jonathon Wilson’s petition has expired therefore no longer active..
Weather as a Force Multiplier: Owning the Weather in 2025
Screenshot of Google search, URL in this Comment:
Here is evidence they have been doing programs for many years.
Take special note section 12 liability.
Geoengineering and Weather Modification Patents. Mar 24, 2014. By Jim Lee.
The Delinquent Teenager Who Was Mistaken for the World’s Top Climate Expert. Donna Laframboise.
Stratospheric solar geoengineering without ozone loss. Dec 27, 2016. David W. Keith, el al.
David W. Keith. Photophoretic levitation of engineered aerosols for geoengineering. Energy and Environmental Systems Group, University of Calgary. June 30, 2010.
Evidence of the activity:
Aluminum and other heavy metals, Rain analysis matches geoengineering proposal
http://Nuremberg Code. 1947. Office of NIH History. https://history.nih.gov/research/downloads/nuremberg.pdf
The Declaration of Helsinki (DoH, Finnish: Helsingin julistus, Swedish: Helsingforsdeklarationen) is a set of ethical principles regarding human experimentation developed for the medical community by the World Medical Association(WMA). It is widely regarded as the cornerstone document on human research ethics.
It is not a legally binding instrument under the international law, but instead draws its authority from the degree to which it has been codified in, or influenced, national or regional legislation and regulations. Its role was described by a Brazilian forum in 2000 in these words “Even though the Declaration of Helsinki is the responsibility of the World Medical Association, the document should be considered the property of all humanity“.
Dyn-O-Gel can be dropped onto a hurricane to extract moisture from rain clouds (Dyn-O-Mat’s founder/CEO, Peter Cordani).
David Blake is in Sydney, Australia.
A CURRENT AFFAIR – Mobile Phone Tower Warning
This is a repost of the recently aired Current Affair program which can now be viewed from outside of Australia.
Published on 21 Sep 2018
Huge Announcement coming soon: John919 We will be looking at what Julian Assange was talking about as he mentioned “Intelligent Evil Dust” #EvilDust. Please comment, Subscribe and Share:#ProTruth
5G, Nanotechnology and Ai are now working together creating an Intelligent #EvilDust we are forced to breath in.
( Please Share this Video.)
Assange’s last video before communications cut at Ecuadorian Embassy in London (FULL): https://youtu.be/P_m3eO3c5Uw
How to avoid the Effects of Chemtrails Nano particles and Ai:https://youtu.be/NAZyWsXalUk
AI and Nanotechnology Working Together 2018: https://youtu.be/LdLRZdK0tkE
G5 AI Nano Bots Nano Food Nano Meds and Chemtrails = NWO : https://youtu.be/twE1cubO3a0
Removing Aluminum From Your Body. Why do they want Aluminum in the Human body? https://youtu.be/kOt8LvTeT-k
Banksters weaponsing weather and aids to push the AGENDA21 2030! WHO PROFITS FROM THIS?? THE BANKSTERS THE CLEAN ENERGY PARTICIPANTS INCLUDING CORPORATIONS PRODUCING ALTERNATIVE ENERGY!!!
INTELLIGENCE RULES THE WORLD, IGNORANCE BEARS THE BURDEN! Mr. Rauthschild’s site is managed by staff members. Rauthschild is an Aniyvwiya Aboriginal of North America and International Businessman representing his RNA/DNA Bloodline 13 Royal Dragon Families Asia Asset Nations, which control the world economy and banks. He’s the Trustee for The Rauthschild’s Family Trust; and Senior Administrative Trustee and Senior Accounts Manager for Five Star Trust. As Director of Rauthschild, Chua & Associate, LLC, he works in concert with Central Banks, European Bank & Bank International Settlements, et. al..
Here is some info I have uncovered this a world wide network of countries participating in Weather modification … WHO WOULD OF THOUGHT CIA INVOLVEMENT HEY??!!!
More info here:- https://www.nsf.gov/nsb/publications/1965/nsb1265.pdf
THE FOLLOWING WILL FOCUS ON AUSTRALIA’S INVOLVEMENT STARTING WITH TURNBULL…
Source Greg HoyUpdated
Whilst Turnbull was Minister of the Environment well before he became Prime Minister provided funding for Russian Company
would bankroll to the tune of $10 million the investigation of an untried Russian technology that aims to trigger rainfall from the atmosphere, even when there are no clouds.
The money bankrolls research into a mysterious ionisation technology promoted by the Australian Rain Corporation.
Turnbull found the time to announce that the Government, already in caretaker mode, would bankroll to the tune of $10 million the investigation of an untried Russian technology that aims to trigger rainfall from the atmosphere, even when there are no clouds.
nd a commercial trial by a wastewater centre at Queensland University left independent experts like Emeritus Professor Neville Fletcher of the Australian National University a little unconvinced.
“I think the conclusion was, and I might even quote that it said: ‘There is no evidence to show that the technology does not work’,” Professor Fletcher told The 7.30 Report.
Another report here https://www.facebook.com/CoZza2786/videos/10154268127437141/
The following is the introduction page straight from the Australia Rain Corporation web page which reads as follows:-
Australian Rain Technologies (ART) is pioneering statistical analysis to enable commercially effective decision-making in the area of rainfall enhancement. This statistical methodology is being applied to ART’s own ATLANT™ rainfall enhancement through ionisation technology. However it is equally applicable to chemical cloud-seeding, which has been hampered by inconclusive trial analysis for 70 years.
In particular the University of Wollongong has applied this analytical method across multiple trials of ART’s ATLANT™ ’ rainfall enhancement through ionisation technology in Australia and Oman. (See summary in Statistical Methodology and full description of methodology in trial reports in Resources)
In all cases rainfall enhancement was identified at high levels of statistical confidence. Enhancement estimates ranged from 10 per cent (90 per cent statistical confidence level) in three trials in South Australia to 18 per cent (99.99 per cent statistical confidence level) in four trials in Oman. There was a 99.5 per cent probability that enhancement was more than 10 per cent in Oman 2013-2016. ART is now in the fifth year of a six-year trial program in Oman 2013-2018
Such results, if repeated in multiple locations throughout the world, would represent a major complement to current expensive and unpalatable water supply augmentation methodologies.
We have spent nine years putting together a world-leading spatial statistical and econometric evaluation team as we pursued our path to rigorous demonstration of efficacy.
We have learnt from 70 years of frustrating and often contradictory traditional weather modification trials since World War II.
We hope this website leads you to share our keen appetite for providing applicable results from rainfall enhancement trials. And for investigating ATLANT™’s potential in all areas of water shortage around the world. For more info continue reading here:- http://www.australianrain.com.au/
SOME OF THE OTHER COMPANIES IN AUSTRALIA INVOLVED IN VARIOUS TYPES OF WEATHER MODIFICATION are listed below :-
This is done without consultation and transparency of the pros and cons to we the people ie. without our consent!
*Interesting to note here Russia has not ratified the Paris Agreement it signed onto same with China… (they are not stupid) read more here http://www.climatechangenews.com/2018/07/12/countries-yet-ratify-paris-agreement/
Australia PM adviser says climate change is ‘UN-led ruse to establish new world order’
Tony Abbott’s business adviser says global warming a fallacy supported by United Nations to ‘create a new authoritarian world order under its control’
THE FUTURE WILL JUDGE HISTORIES MISTAKES!!! WILL THERE BE A FUTURE IN THE WORLD WORTH LIVING IN???
Question where to from here?? Australian Voters need to chose carefully who they vote for at the next Federal election as the Major Parties are Corporate Commercial building, Bankster HACKS… ie Following the GLOBALIST HANDBOOK that instructs and forms current policy makers well into the future!
The Current and past Governments DO NOT REPRESENT THE PEOPLE! Vote for a minor Party that seeks to protect your rights and our country’s SOVEREIGNTY! Our resources belong to the people and the wealth revenue from them should go back into creating infrastructure such as water proofing the farming community around Australia during periods of drought!…
Incidentally most all Corporate mining companies and foreign owned farmland pay no tax!http://www.abc.net.au/news/2017-12-07/corporate-tax-data-released-by-ato/9236878
If people look at ya funny when you say the government can manipulate weather, show them this. It all started here on a commercial scale. They used it during the Vietnam war.
Research “Operation Popeye” when the US military Industrial complex used weather for war. 😉
Latest update about California wild fires! Here:- https://patriots4truth.org/2018/11/15/attack-apocalypse-in-america/
Military weaponising weather Vancouvre 2025
Psychopaths revealing their agenda in plain sight…. global dimming using Sulphur destroys plant life acid rain… and is deterimental to humans… Lack of vitamin D uptake from lack of exposure to the sun
.. Solution aiding pharmaceutical companies sell Vitamin D supplements instead of naturally producing it from our skins exposure to the sun..
TERRAFORMING Has Begun: “Global Dimming” is a Plot to EXTERMINATE Humanity by Terraforming the Atmosphere with SMOG Pollution, Killing Earth’s Food Crops and Unleashing Ecological Collapse
POTENTIAL EMP WEAPONISED EVENT THAT THE USA IS NOT PREPARED FOR read more here: https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-6449619/Air-Force-warns-electromagnetic-pulse-weapons-Iran-Russia-North-Korea-destroy-America.html?fbclid=IwAR0gVPUN6omClJo6zKRhSim0RJal-evhJfTq5NQwJaxte_zcKb3wAgN5d0Y
Latest news updates –
A Romanian helicopter deploys chaff during a Romanian Navy Day. Picture: Jonathan Nelson
A spokesperson from the Australian Department of Defence said chaff was used as part of a “routine fighter jet aircrew” training exercise.
“The use of chaff during training evolutions is a regular occurrence and is governed by strict safety procedures for both Australian Defence Force personnel and the public.”
The chaff that was released was made up of “aluminium fibres thinner than a human hair which are tightly wound together and then dispersed by the wind when released,” the spokesperson said.
While it’s designed to confuse the enemy, given the fact that chaff can appear red on weather radars (the same colour as dark, rain producing storm clouds), it can also temporarily confuse meteorologists.
That happened in December when large blips appeared on weather radar over the US states of Illinois and western Kentucky, which the National Weather Service described as “interesting” before the source was revealed to be a military operation.
Despite concerns from public health and environmental bodies over the years that the materials used in chaff can cause harm, there doesn’t appear to be a great deal of public research on the matter.
In a 1998 review of research sponsored by the US Department of Defence regarding the environmental effects of chaff, researchers said the “widespread environmental, human and agricultural impacts of chaff as currently used in training are negligible and far less than those from other man-made emissions.”
Chaff is used in military train operations to mask certain activities.
More proof here 👇👇👇👇👇
“Most pilots are trained to avoid these storm systems,” shouts Byron Pederson. “We’re trained to enter them.” He’s flying a King Air B200 prop jet above Maharashtra, India, toward a dense, bruise-colored monsoon cloud more than 20,000 feet from top to bottom. He dips a wing, Top Gun-style, as he circles the cumulonimbus. “Bank alert!” warns a computerized female voice from the control panel. Pederson calls her Bitchin’ Betty for all the scolding she does as he defies the generally accepted rules of aviation.
Four of us are crammed inside the tiny plane, and the air smells like stress and sweat. Pederson’s in the cockpit with Shahzad Mistry, the rookie co-pilot he’s training; I’m seated a few feet behind them, trying not to vomit on the fridge-size computer to my right that’s humming and blinking as it records meteorological data. To my left is Prakash Koliwad, chief executive officer of Kyathi Climate Modification Consultants, the cloud-seeding company based in Bangalore that commissioned this flight.
The view outside my window goes smoky gray as Pederson maneuvers the King Air inside a dark layer of heavy moisture along the cloud’s underbelly. The plane lurches and shakes. “We’re in,” says Pederson. The Vertical Speed Indicator on the dashboard climbs. We’ve entered the “updraft,” a shaft of wind at the center of all storm clouds that’s sucking the plane upward at a rate of 800 feet per minute. I can barely lift my hands—the G-force is pinning them to my lap.
“Fire left,” instructs Pederson. Mistry flips a switch on the center console and deploys a flare on the left wing. “Fire right.” There are 24 cylinders resembling sticks of dynamite wired to racks on the plane’s wings, 12 on each. The flares are filled with combustible sodium chloride—pulverized table salt mixed with a flammable potassium powder. When the switch is flipped, the end of the flare shoots orange fire and trillions of superfine salt particles are released into the cloud. Water molecules are attracted to salt, so they bond to the particles and coalesce into raindrops.
It’s early September, still monsoon season in this southwestern region of India, yet the clouds haven’t done much more than drizzle. Maharashtra is one of the largest and wealthiest of India’s 30 states, with 110 million residents. It encompasses Mumbai and other large cities, plus vast swaths of farmland. Like other agricultural regions of India, it’s in its third consecutive year of drought. More than 80 percent of its farms depend on rain for irrigation, and agriculture production has dropped by almost a third since 2013. The human impact has been severe—1,300 debt-trapped farmers have committed suicide in Maharashtra in just the past six months.
In July, the state’s minister of revenue, Eknath Khadse, took a gamble: He hired Koliwad to carry out a $4.5 million cloud-seeding program over three months and across 100 square miles in the middle of the state, the largest campaign of this kind ever attempted in India. “Our situation is severe,” says Khadse. “There is no other technology available in the world to bring more rains. We must be willing to try it.”
So Koliwad called Weather Modification Inc., the world’s largest private aerial cloud-seeding company, based in Fargo, N.D. WMI’s chief executive, Patrick Sweeney, developed a five-year technology transfer program with Koliwad that’s now in its first year. Pederson and other WMI staff are training Indian pilots, meteorologists, and Doppler radar technicians to seed clouds.
Sweeney has seeded clouds all over the world for more than 20 years, but the Maharashtra project is unique in that the circumstances are so dire. “The hardest part is managing expectations,” he says. “People in Maharashtra are hoping for a cure-all to drought. They come out and dance in the streets when it rains, they hug our pilots and say, ‘Do it again.’ But we can’t guarantee that the clouds will be there—and willing to cooperate.”
During our mission over Maharashtra, we have cooperative clouds. Twenty-two minutes after seeding the first cloud, Pederson returns to the location where he fired that initial flare. It’s pouring. “We’ve got drops!” he shouts. He dips the King Air into a victory swoop before gunning over to another cluster of clouds. My stomach churns, and I can’t hold it in any longer; I heave into my purse. Pederson doesn’t notice. The computer barks out another warning about excessive banking. He laughs and says, “Shove it, Betty.”
Maharashtrians drawing water from a well.
Cloud seeding has been controversial since it was invented by Vincent Schaefer in 1946. A chemist for General Electric, Schaefer made the first snowstorm in a laboratory freezer. The media predicted that cloud seeding could perform miracles, from dousing forest fires to ensuring white Christmases. But doubts quickly arose about the impact of meddling with nature. Concerns that cloud seeding might “steal” water from an area a cloud is traveling toward—robbing Peter to water Paul, as it were—have been dispelled. Storm clouds continually regenerate and release only a portion of their moisture when they rain, which means you can’t “wring out” all the moisture from one cloud. “If anything, the area downwind would get more precipitation from cloud seeding, not less,” says Dave Reynolds, a meteorologist with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.
“There’s little dispute that if you can actually get the seeding material inside the clouds, it will enhance precipitation,” says Dan Breed, a scientist with the National Center for Atmospheric Research. “The question is, by how much?” Just as it’s hard to predict the weather, it’s hard to really know if you’ve made it rain or not. Breed’s own research—a nine-year, $14 million government-funded study he completed last year in collaboration with WMI and the University of Wyoming—found that seeding increased snowfall 5 percent to 15 percent from clouds in two Wyoming mountain ranges.
In India, I witnessed “hygroscopic” or water-attracting cloud seeding, which is used in warm-weather regions to enhance rain, disperse fog, and clean dirty skies. Breed’s study examined the cold-weather seeding of “orographic” clouds that form above high-altitude mountains and deliver snow. This method, which is used during winters in arid western U.S. states, fills rivers and water reservoirs in the spring when the snow melts. Snow-enhancement projects are often commissioned by water managers and power companies with hydroelectric plants; for decades, Pacific Gas & Electric has spent millions annually on cloud seeding in the Sierra Nevadas.
Cold-weather seeding is done at the core of snow clouds that can reach altitudes as high as 60,000 feet: Flares filled with tiny flakes of silver iodide are ejected into the clouds’ centers. Silver iodide has a molecular structure similar to that of ice. As the silver particles drift down through the clouds, water gloms onto them as it would to ice, and snowflakes grow.
This method is also routinely used for mitigating hail storms, especially in Canada: When silver iodide particles are injected into a hail-producing storm cloud, there are suddenly more nuclei for the ice to cling to. Smaller ice pellets, or “graupel,” form rather than large hail stones.
Silver iodide in large concentrations can be harmful, but the concentrations found in snowpack after cloud seeding are often so low as to be undetectable. Breed’s NCAR study in Wyoming found that there was less silver iodide in snow and soil samples in areas where clouds had been seeded than there had been before the campaigns—either due to fluctuations in naturally occurring levels of silver iodide or because the extra water released by the seeding flushed the system.
It’s easier to measure the success of snow seeding than rain seeding, but Reynolds of the NOAA points out that even the results from snowstorm studies vary significantly. “The data is still pretty sparse,” he says. “There are very few absolutes in cloud science. What we do know is that no two clouds are alike.” This makes it difficult to control and replicate the results of cloud-seeding studies.
Despite the uncertainty, the industry is on the rise. According to the World Meteorological Organization, more than 52 countries have active cloud-seeding operations—up from 42 four years ago. In the U.S. last year, 55 cloud-seeding projects were reported to NOAA. There’s even a luxury cloud-seeding market emerging—one European company, for instance, charges a minimum of $150,000 to guarantee good wedding weather by forcing clouds to rain in the days before the event.
“The scientists want 100 percent certainty—we know in our industry from experience that, most of the time, it works,” says Koliwad. The cost of cloud seeding is negligible compared with that of drought, he adds. The Maharashtra government has spent $750 million to defray the impact of drought over the last three years; cloud seeding costs a fraction of that. “Rain is life,” says Koliwad, whose family has farmed in southwestern India for more than 300 years. “And with climate change, rain is becoming less reliable. If we can monitor it, forecast it, manage it, and enhance it—then we can survive.”
The plane takes off for cloud-seeding operations.
The man who’s brought cloud seeding to 31 countries on six continents works out of an unassuming airfield in North Dakota. Patrick Sweeney is 63, with thick silver hair and the compact build of a wrestler. There’s an air of J.R. Ewing about him—the confidence of a wildcatter-turned-mogul. Since he got his pilot’s license in 1974, he’s flown more than 6,000 hours of cloud-seeding expeditions. He looks low-key, driving his Chevy pickup in jeans and sunglasses, but he also owns a pair of Learjets and an amphibious plane that he takes to his compound on Bad Medicine Lake in Minnesota.
Sweeney is optimistic about the India project, but he cautions that what he does isn’t a short-term solution for drought. “This industry should be seen as long-term water management—not a drought relief deal,” he says. “If you don’t have clouds, you can hire all the cloud seeders in the world and you’re still not going to have rain.” Still, a lot of people are eager to hire him for a variety of projects: WMI, which generates roughly $20 million a year in revenue, is negotiating contracts with governments in Asia, South America, and the Middle East that could double its revenue in 2016.
As a kid, Sweeney reassembled radios for fun. He’s been working in meteorology since he was 18, when he joined the Navy and went to Vietnam, specializing in weather radar. When he enrolled at the University of North Dakota after the war, he started building advanced Doppler radars in the university’s department of atmospheric sciences. At 27 he was hired as WMI’s third employee by Wilbur Brewer, a North Dakota farmer who became interested in cloud seeding as a means to protect his crops from hail damage. At 34, Sweeney bought out Brewer and made WMI an international business.
Since then he’s built a series of multifaceted companies. WMI is located at the Fargo Jet Center—a private airport Sweeney owns with his brother, Jim. Hundreds of private planes fly in and out each year, many stopping to refuel as they ferry clients on international travel (the jet center has a famously expedient customs office). This is also where Sweeney’s mechanics equip and service the more than 100 WMI cloud-seeding aircraft—Cessnas, King Airs, and Bombardiers—they operate or have leased and sold worldwide.
Sweeney also built ICE (Ice Crystal Engineering), a company that makes cloud-seeding chemicals and supplies flares to 25 countries. ICE adds a decent sidestream of income for Sweeney, with revenue of about $3 million a year. But the bigger advantage is that it helped WMI become the only aerial seeding company that “does a full turnkey,” says Neil Brackin, WMI’s president—meaning it customizes and operates the planes and radars, manufactures the flares, and flies the missions.
They do have competitors. There are 34 private companies worldwide that do weather modification, but there’s no bigger rival in aerial cloud seeding than the Chinese government, which spends hundreds of millions a year seeding clouds in 22 of its 23 provinces, both to clear pollution above cities and to enhance rainfall for farming. China has yet to allow private companies to enter its market, but Sweeney is making inroads; he sold his first cloud-seeding plane to Beijing last year.
Thailand’s government has a Bureau of Royal Rainmaking, with hundreds of employees that WMI helped train, though the program’s still using old technology—releasing mounds of table salt from trap doors in the bellies of its planes. And when the Argentine government took over the cloud-seeding program WMI built for the country, it cut costs. Soon after, two pilots died seeding clouds above a mountain, and the project was suspended.
Sweeney says plenty of programs around the world are mismanaged or nothing more than short-term vanity projects. “Some are doing weather modification for political reasons, to make it look like they’re helping farmers, then they cut corners and don’t maintain the scientific integrity,” he bristles. “That’s what creates distrust in our industry more than anything else—the people who don’t do it right.”
The disaster management headquarters in Aurangabad.
The office of disaster management in Aurangabad, at the center of Maharashtra’s farming region, is located in a pale-pink building that looks like a wedding cake. What especially draws the eye isn’t the building’s color or the ornate façade but the weird thing on the roof—a huge white orb, about 80 feet in diameter, on top of a scaffolded tower. This is the latest in Doppler radar, a technology that’s improved significantly over the last decade, along with satellite data and computing power. It helps the government make sure it’s getting its money’s worth.
The orb sends out electromagnetic waves that travel hundreds of kilometers; when the waves hit rain droplets and ice crystals, they bounce back and create an image of the cloud contour. The stronger the signal, the denser the cloud and the more intense the rain. Conventional radars send out only horizontal waves, but the new generation of radars has a dual-polarization system that emits vertical and horizontal waves, enabling meteorologists to get 3D images of the interior of the cloud to see how the precipitation is developing and at what rate. The resolution of its images has increased with improved computing power. In recent years, software known as Titan (Thunderstorm identification, tracking, and nowcasting) interprets and visualizes radar data in real time, feeding it to meteorologists as pilots seed the clouds. Weather Research & Forecasting software is also able to model future storm activity with increasing accuracy.
“The combination of these things has given cloud-seeding research a tremendous push in the past 10 years,” says Roelof Bruintjes, a scientist at NCAR, “and we’ll see it redouble in the next decade.”
“The better we can see weather, the better we can model it,” adds WMI’s Brackin, “and the better we can then measure the impact of the seeding.”
Maharashtra’s minister of revenue, Khadse, is happy with the results of the first phase of the cloud-seeding effort. It produced 950 millimeters of rainfall in the seeded areas, according to local officials. “It has been enough to keep some of our crops alive,” he says. “But we understand that a project like this can only succeed over a longer duration.” His director of disaster management, Suhas Diwase, plans to move the program out of his department, which is designed to handle short-term troubleshooting. “We can’t think of this as a one-time deal,” Diwase says. Given this longer view, cloud seeding doesn’t have to succeed 100 percent of the time—it’s enough for it to work part of the time, when the clouds decide to cooperate.
NCAR’s Breed explains that this long-term mentality is the reason water managers and hydroelectric plant operators in the western U.S. have invested in cloud seeding over many decades: No matter how variable the weather is, “a 5 percent increase in snowpack from cloud seeding over time is pretty doable. Water managers are perfectly happy with 5 percent—even if they don’t get 15 percent, it’s still economical.”
Brackin adds that while scientists want to achieve a 99.99 percent probability that a technology consistently works, the industry doesn’t need that kind of certainty or consistency to succeed. He likens cloud seeding to a cutting-edge medication that’s still in development: “If you’re dealing with a serious ailment and you were offered a medicine that had a 60 percent chance of working, or even 20 percent, would you take it? You probably would.”